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Spawn RabbitMQ consumers with PHP

//Spawn RabbitMQ consumers with PHP

Spawn RabbitMQ consumers with PHP

Using message queues like RabbitMQ is a nice and easy way to bring PHP processes into the background. Instead of running a time consuming task inside a web request, just push a message to a queue and grab the result later. Sounds easy in the first step. But when it comes to keep PHP processes running in the background to consume those messages on a queue it can get dirty.

Running on a dedicated Linux machine will make life easy. But what would you do, if it is not like this. On Linux you can simply use things like supervisord to control it. But what would you do if you have to run in shared hosting (for sure the rabbit must then be available somewhere else), not able to install any additional software. Even harder: what do you do on Windows. I would never suggest to run supervisor daemon on a windows machine, even if others do. The Linux cron daemon (mostly also available on shared hosting) or Windows scheduled tasks can be a solution. Write a small PHP script that is triggered every few minutes and connects to RabbitMQ to wait for messages.

(Examples are based on php-amqplib)

// connect to your RabbitMQ server
$connection = new AMQPConnection('localhost', 5672, 'guest', 'guest');
$channel = $connection->channel();

// declare a channel
$channel->queue_declare('myQueue', false, false, false, false);

// define consuming
$channel->basic_consume('hello', '', false, true, false, false,
  function($msg) {
    // a callback to consume incoming messages
    echo "Message received:n";

// wait for incoming messages
while(count($channel->callbacks)) {

This snippet shows, how easy it could be to consume messages from a queue. If you put code like that into a PHP script and execute the script every minute, using the Linux cron daemon or  a windows scheduled task, it would create a new consumer every minute. That’s not exactly what we want. How do I now control the amount of spawned consumers?

To make this happen we just have to check the return values form queue_declare(). One of the return values is the current consumer count listening on the queue.

// It return an array with different values.
// The third one is the consumer count.
list(,,$consumerCount) = $channel->queue_declare('myQueue', false, false, false, false);

if ($consumerCount > $maxConsumers) {

Just stop the consumer script, if the maximum amount of consumers is reached. The big benefit from PHP is, that it fails gracefully when it comes to errors or exceptions. That means, we will not have PHP consumers running into a dead-end on issues. When an error occurs in consuming a message (or an exception, depends on you), the php process will stop and this means it also stops consuming. You do not have to do any additional cleanup neither in PHP nor RabbitMQ. Just wait for the next cron/scheduled task and a new and fresh consumer is fired up.

For sure you have to do a bit more on exception/error handling and all this stuff should be nicely wrapped up in classes and so on. Whatever fits your needs.

Autorefresh consumers

To avoid consumers to run too long, you can shut them down after a while. Withing your consuming callback, you can check how long the consumer is already running and close it after a defined time:

// snippet of a possible consumer class

 * Consume messages from queue
 * @param PhpAmqpLibMessageAMQPMessage $message The message
 public function consume(PhpAmqpLibMessageAMQPMessage $message) {
   // do whatever you have to do with your message
   $result = $this->executeWorker($message->body);

   if ($result === true) {
     // tell rabbitmq that message is completed
     $channel = $message->delivery_info['channel'];

   // stop consuming when ttl is reached
   if ($this->start + $this->ttl) < time()) {

Avoid blocking resources

To not step into bad blocking issues, always try to avoid binding resources not required in a consumer. E.g. you may need a database connection during consuming a message. If you connect to a database, the connection will stay with the lifetime of your consumer. If you have many consumers you may open up too many connections and block others from using the database.

That’s a reason why we keep the consumer really really lightweighted. To consume a message, we call another PHP script using proc_open() to avoid unecessary bindings within the consumer itself. The bindings sticks with the worker script:

 * Execute a worker in an external process
 * @param string $body The job message body
 * @return boolean True on success
protected function executeWorker($body) {
  // open a php process and call the worker.php script
  $pipes = array();
  $process = proc_open(
    '/usr/bin/php -d display_errors=stderr /path/to/worker.php',
      0 => array("pipe", "r"),
      1 => array("pipe", "w"),
      2 => array("pipe", "w")

  if (is_resource($process)) {
    // write the message into worker.php stdin
    fwrite($pipes[0], $body);

    // read errors from worker.php
    $stdErr = stream_get_contents($pipes[2]);

    // if worker.php ends without errors, execution was successful
    if (proc_close($process) === 0 && empty($stdErr)) {
      return true;

  return false;

Finally due to some PHP behaviour, running PHP consumer to handle messages from queueing  systems aren’t so complex. The same may also work for other systems like Gearman for example. Have fun playing around yourself.

For the windows guys: How do you solve it? Let me know in the comments.

By |2017-05-19T09:30:05+00:00Oktober 21st, 2013|Development|6 Comments


  1. Jason Eggers 10. Juni 2014 at 20:09 - Reply

    Hello Timo,

    This post is the essential missing logic that I was looking for. Got me out of a rut of how to ensure that there are always enough consumers running.

    For Windows it’s basically the same thing, but set up a Schedule Task that calls a .bat that calls a .php (or skip that extra step if you want) with something that kicks off the background process using WScript.Shell:

    $WshShell = new COM(„WScript.Shell“);
    $oExec = $WshShell->Run(„cmd /C cd somepath & php pathtoscript.php“, 0, false);

  2. dustin 5. September 2016 at 21:07 - Reply

    Thanks for this example. It shows me again that PHP isn’t a good choice for long running scripts or rabbitmq in this case. You have to care about too much things. If you bound to PHP I recommend to call php scripts from a language which can handle it more resources effectively like Java, NodeJs, Golang. if you use rabbitmq you think already big 😉

    • Timo Buhmann 6. September 2016 at 9:15 - Reply

      There is no point about long running scripts in PHP. This stuff is in production for more than 3 years now. Never ever a single issue with that. And it is a part of one of the market leader in enterprise corporate sustainability management. The java stuff around this software has tons of more trouble in that time. Especially in terms of resources. The memory footprint in this case is much smaller than in java.

  3. Theodis Butler 3. Januar 2018 at 7:25 - Reply

    This is the best article I read on alternatives to supervisord. I currently run consumer under supervisord with try / catch block so the consumer doesn’t terminate after doing it’s thing. (In this case it uploads bulk products to eBay).

  4. Chris 13. April 2018 at 8:16 - Reply

    Brilliant…. Excellent article. I have been battling with celery + python which is not my skill and more complex than I require.

    By modifying romainrg/codeigniter-rabbitmq-library with your suggestion for preventing too many consumers and marrying it with Always up service manager for Windows (ref: https://www.coretechnologies.com/products/AlwaysUp/Apps/RunPHPScriptAsAService.html) I now have the very best solution for my situation in the codeigniter framework.

    I think I’ll tie it together and upload as a github project as a guide. It has been hard to find good solutions for RabbitMQ on PHP.

    You have helped me a great deal and am very thankful. Time for me to add back to the community now lol.

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